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The Historical Fusions list below identifies cultures, groups and individuals that in past historical periods have identifed themselves, or have been identified by others, as having at that time some sort of fusion identity.

Anyone or any community who identified with some sort of fusion heritage, and were accepted by other fusionists as having a fusion identity, can be included in the list. Groups or individuals who did not self-identify with a fusion identity or heritage, but were identified by others in such a way, may also be included in the list.

Essentially, a historical fusion identity is one that has been recorded in the past, but which no-one self-identifies with anymore - although with the caveats that:
  • others may still consider that it exists, and
  • there may be some uncertainty amongst people of such identities as to whether it does or should still exist.
I acknowledge that there is a transitional area (somewhere) between identifying with a fusion culture and identifying with a mainstream vulture.

This list below of historical fusion culture, groups and individuals is constantly being added to, and suggestions for further additions are always most welcome - click on the 'email author' button at the top of the page. For the time being these are arranged according to the country with which a particular fusion identity was associated, but this may change as other themes emerge.

Fusions of English, Irish, Aboriginal, Asian, Pacific Islander heritages in the 19th to mid-20th centuries
  1. The term Half-Caste is currently considered a slur, and people with such a background tend at present to identify with another ethnicity, especially Aboriginal.

Great Britain
Fusions of Norman, Welsh and English heritages from the 11th to about the 15th centuries.
  1. Cambro-Norman and also here. A significant Cambro-Norman was the historian Gerald of Wales.

Fusions of German, Old Prussian, Lithuanian and Polish heritages from the 13th to the mid-20th centuries (this remains a highly contested identity, with many claims being made of ethnic or racial exclusiveness over East Prussia's peoples by neighbouring countries, and the mass expulsions of the original fusionist population between 1945 and 1948).
  1. East Prussian and here. A significant Fusionist East Prussian (claimed by both Poles and Germans as 'theirs') was Nikolaus Copernicus

Fusions of Spanish Christian and Moorish Islamic heritages from the 8th to the 17th centuries, and Spanish Christian and Shepardic Jewish cultures during the 13th to 16th centuries in Spain and Portugal.
  1. the Spanish and Moorish Mosriscos
  2. the Spanish and Jewish Marranos

Fusions of Norman, Islamic, German and Italian heritages in 11th and 12th century Sicily.
  1. The biographies of the Norman-Sicilian kings Roger II and William II give some idea of the fusionist Sicilian culture of the period.