<title>brucehassan :: Historymatrix :: Industrialisation of Heraldry</title> <META name="des<head> <title>brucehassan :: Historymatrix :: Industrialisation of Heraldry</title> <META name="description" content="A history of the crafting and manufacture of heraldic devices in NSW"> <META name="keywords" content="coat of arms, heraldry, industrialisation, craftsmanship, New South Wales, Australia"> </head> <body> <body bgcolor="ffffff" text="#000000" link="#000000" vlink="#000000"> <font face=verdana> <div align="center"> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=5 width=620> <font face="verdana" size=2 color="#ffffff" link="#ffffff"> <tr bgcolor="#cccc00" align="center"> <td> <a href="historymatrix.html">Historymatrix Index</a> <td> <a href="indexHC.html">History in Common</a> <td> <a href="http://www.phansw.org.au/">PHA(NSW)</a> <td> <a href="Sitemap.html">Site Map</a> <td> <a href="index.html">brucehassan Home</a> </td> </font> </tr> </div> </table> <div align="center"> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <img src="seal4" height=150 width=150> </td> <td> <img src="seallong" height=150 width=450> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <p> <table> <table cols=3 align=center width=620 border=0 cellpadding=5 cellspacing=2> <font face="verdana" size=2 color="#000000" link="#000000"> <tr> <th> </th> <th><font color="#666600"> Making Arms:<br> The Industrialisation of Heraldry<br> in New South Wales,<br> by Bruce Baskerville, Public Historian<br> <p> Heraldry Australia Inc.<br> National Trust Heritage Festival 2006 Event<br> 'History House' Auditorium, 133 Macquarie Street, Sydney<br> Saturday 8th April 2006, 2.30pm<br> <br> <th> </th> </tr> <tr> <td width=10 valign=top> </td> <td width=590 valign=top> <p> The right of Bruce Baskerville to be identified as the <font color="maroon">moral rights</font> author of this work is hereby asserted in accordance with the <i>Copyright Amendment (Moral Rights) Act 2000</i> of the Commonwealth of Australia. </i> <p> <font color="#666600"> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsMelocco" height=300 width=420> </div> </td> </table> <font color="#666600">Figure 1: A Melocco Brothers craftsman making the brass? terrazzo framing <br>of a coat of arms for the vestibule floor of the Mitchell Wing of the State Library of NSW, <br>Annandale July 1940, photographer NSW Government Printer's Office, Picman GPO1-22762</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> <b>Acknowledgements and Disclaimers</b> <p> I have attempted in this paper to draw together several different strands of recent research to form a coherent story around the 'industrial' theme of this year's Heritage Festival. There are many elements in the story, and the research to date really suggests the need for much more research, but enough of an outline is beginning to emerge. <p> In this paper I will talk not so much about the art of heraldry as such, but more about the evolving methods of heraldic representation used by craftsmen and manufacturers, and the broader contexts in which such representations have been made and used in NSW and elsewhere. <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsSydGPO" height=420 width=300> </div> </td> </table> </i><font color="#666600">Figure 2: Royal Arms over colonnade of Sydney GPO, 1883, carved Pyrmont sandstone, photographer B. Baskerville 2005</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> I would like to acknowledge and thank Richard d'Apice, Stephen Szabo, Rosemary Annable and Graham Williams who have all bought various examples to my attention and encouraged this research. <p> I am presenting this paper as a private individual, not as a public servant, and the views and opinions contained in it are mine alone, as are the errors, and do not in any way represent those of the Heritage Office or the NSW government. </i></i> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsLogos" height=320 width=220> </div> </td> </table> <font color="#666600">Figure 3: Collage of contemporary heraldic style labels<br> on alcohol bottles and T-shirts, 2006</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> </font> <p> <font color="#666600"><b>Making Arms</b></font> <p> From the carved Arms on our great public buildings to T Shirts and alcohol adverts - how did we get from one to the other? - is this even the pathway? <p> <b>Imported or Local?</b><br> The <i>State Arms, Symbols & Emblems Act 2004</i> has stimulated research into the making of the many beautiful examples of official arms seen in and on public buildings across the state. It has been assumed that these were all imported from England, and although some indeed probably were, <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsWoolwich" height=226 width=320> </div> </td> </table> <font color="#666600">Figure 4: Wrought iron arms on gates at Woolwich Arsenal Shell Factory, crafted wrought iron by H&MD Grissell, Regents Canal Ironworks, London 1856, photographer unknown</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> research is showing that colonial and NSW craftsmen, using local materials such as sandstone and cedar, made almost all of the surviving official arms, forming a specialised niche in the history of Australian arts and crafts. During the twentieth century the making of official arms (Royal and State) was largely overtaken by industrial mass production, developing a small but distinctive contribution to the history of industrial manufacturing in NSW and Australia, although the crafting of finer quality Arms also survived. <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsParraCrt" height=420 width=300> </div> </td> </table> </i><font color="#666600">Figure 5: Royal Arms on tower of Parramatta Courthouse, 1892, carved sandstone,<br> Public Works Dept?, photographer B. Baskerville 2005</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> Royal Arms have been used to convey official authority in NSW since 1788, although the design (or blazon) has evolved with the succession of sovereigns since George III. The NSW State Arms were granted in 1906, and have been used since then, unchanged, to represent the official authority of the state. <p> Both Royal and State Arms were used to represent official authority during the 20th century, although Royal Arms became increasingly confined to judicial and other legal uses. The 2004 legislation has now clearly determined that official authority is NSW is to be represented by the use of the State Arms. <p> Official Arms represent the official authority of the Crown and State. In order to do this they must follow and reflect their official description, or blazon, which can be enforced by the use of the best available methods to produce representations that are true to the blazon as well as being aesthetically beautiful. <p> <b>Development of assumed heraldry in colonial NSW</b><br> Given that heraldic craftsmanship was well-practiced in colonial NSW, it is not surprising that alongside official heraldry there developed local heraldic practises by both migrant and locally-born craftsmen. <p> The early representations of local, assumed heraldry was vernacular in their forms.<br> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsBowman1" height=250 width=600> </div> </td> </table> </i><font color="#666600">Figure 6: The Bowman Flag, 1806, watercolour painted on silk, <br>attributed to Mary Bowman, Picman XR1</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> The earliest example I have found is the Bowman Flag, supposedly made at Richmond in 1806 to celebrate Nelson's great naval victory at Trafalgar. The 2 metre long flag was made from Mrs Bowman's silk wedding dress, with the coat of arms painted in water colour. Local legend tells that the Bowman women made the flag, but a State Library curator has recently said that "<i>...it must have been done by a professional painter</i>" (Woodford: 9). <p> The flag depicts a coat of arms, with a rose, thistle and shamrock entwined on the shield, a kangaroo and emu as supporters, standing on a grassy compartment, a ribbon inscribed 'Unity' as the crest, and Nelson's flagged signal of 'England expects every man will do his duty' providing a motto. The Nelsonian motto has associated the flag with the victory at Trafalgar, but I have <a href="matrixHawkCom.html"><font color="#666600">argued elsewhere</font></a> that the flag is a coded message of the resistance by the Hawkesbury settlers to the Rum Rebellion in 1808. Either way, the heraldry has a significance that is reinforced by the use of silk material and water paints - materials that were not common in the early colony. <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsSilk" height=300 width=420> </div> </td> </table> </i><font color="#666600">Figure 7: Captain Silk's 'Advance Australia' Arms, 1821, oil painted on cedar,<br> painter Richard Read Snr?, Picman R183</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> Fifteen years later 'Captain Silk's Arms' were produced. These were reputedly made for a Captain Silk of the <i>Prince of Orange</i>, a ship that visited Sydney in 1821 - the painting is attributed to the date of that visit (Picman R183), and is possibly by Richard Read Senior. They were later owned by Thomas Silk, son of Captain Silk. The kangaroo and emu supporters reflect those of the Bowman Flag, but the rising sun crest, blue and white wreath, the 'Advance Australia' motto, and the design on the shield of white stars on a blue cross suggesting the Southern Cross, and the charges of a garb, a golden fleece, a ship, and a harpoon & anchor are all new elements. The painting is in oil upon a wooden panel - not particularly uncommon materials by that time, suggesting that this design was already well established and in popular use. <p> The devices that make up Captain Silk's Arms are found in the many assumed versions of the 'Advance Australia' arms that were made and displayed during the colonial period.<br> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsBNSW" height=300 width=420> </div> </td> </table> <font color="#666600">Figure 8: 'Advance Australia Arms', Bank of New South Wales, Sydney, <br>carved sandstone, photographer: B. Baskerville 2005 </font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsAAnewc" height=420 width=420> </div> </td> </table> <font color="#666600">Figure 9: 'Advance Australia Arms', pediment above terrace of shops,<br> Hunter Street, Newcastle, 1890s, <br>moulded concrete?, photographer: B. Baskerville 2004 </font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> <p> The first grant of Arms in Australia was made directly by a Royal Warrant of King William IV in 1836 when he created the Anglican Diocese of Australia, appointed its first bishop William Broughton, and assigned Arms to the Diocese. <br> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsBroughton" height=420 width=420> </div> </td> </table> <font color="#666600">Figure 10: Anglican Diocese of Australia impaled Broughton,<br> St Andrew's Anglican Cathedral (assigned 1836), Sydney,<br>embroidered seat of arm chair, c1840s?; photographer: S. Szabo, 2002 </font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> The white stars on a blue field are evident, described as "<i>...representing the Crux Australis or principal Constellation of the Southern Hemisphere</i>"; while Broughton's Arms are impaled, or placed side-by-side with the Diocesan Arms. Broughton's Arms, which seem to be assumed, are remarkably similar to the banner used by the East India Company, alluding to both his own family connections with India and to the colony's former ecclesiastical status as a part of the Diocese of Calcutta. <p> These Arms were embroidered on the cushion of an armchair that still remains in St Andrew's Cathedral, reflecting the significance of the diocesan founding as depicted by the heraldry, and also pointing to a role for craftswomanship in heraldic representation. It also suggests that local, popular heraldic design was influencing the creation of official heraldry. <p> By the later colonial and early federation period, assumed heraldry had developed not only a widely accepted set of devices, as shown in Captain Silk's Arms, to represent local identity, but some degree of patriation of heraldic authority also seems to have been anticipated. <p> In 1900 Queen Victoria signed the Letters Patent establishing the office of Governor General. Clause 2 of the Patent determined that there should be a Great Seal of the Commonwealth, but "<i>...Provided that until a Great Seal shall be provided, the Private Seal of Our said Governor General may be used as the Great Seal of the Commonwealth of Australia</i>". Thus the seal of Lord Hopetoun, the first Governor General (1901-1903), became the national seal for some time, reflecting the way in which the seal used by the sovereign also constitutes the national seal in Britain. <p> Popular perceptions of this quasi-royal role are reflected in the 'By Appointment' advertisements that appeared around this time.<br> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsByAppt2" height=420 width=320> </div> </td> </table> <font color="#666600">Figure 11: 'By Appointment to the Governor-General', advertisement in commercial section, <i>Sands Directory</i>, Sydney 1905 edition, p. 1402 </font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> Although not common, they are frequent enough to suggest that, as the symbolism depicted in locally assumed heraldry stabilised, expectations of some sort of official recognition of a local coat of arms was also developing. Vice-regal Arms had been used for some time to symbolise patronage of particular establishments:<br> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsCarrington" height=320 width=420> </div> </td> </table> <font color="#666600">Figure 12: Arms of Charles Robert Wynn-Carrington, Marquess of Lincolnshire, Earl Carrington, GCMG, PC (1843-1928), Governor of New South Wales 1885-1890,<br><a href="http://www.heritage.nsw.gov.au/07_subnav_01_2.cfm?itemid=5045440">Carrington Hotel</a>, Katoomba (built 1882 as Great Western Hotel, re-named 1886),<br>stained glass, c1900s?; photographer: S. Szabo, 2001</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> Local motifs were also being used as heraldic charges in vice-regal heraldry. Lord Rosmead, for example, had been granted supporters to his Arms of an ostrich and a kangaroo in recognition of his vice-regal service in NSW (1872-1879) and the Cape Colony. <p> There is an implicit Australianisation of heraldic arts and heraldic authority in the development of assumed Arms reflecting Australian themes, the expression of vice-regal patronage of commercial and social activities through heraldry, and the adoption of Australian motifs in vice regal heraldry. <p> There are some suggestions by heraldic writers of the period of a decline in the heraldic arts and heraldic authority in Britain in the later Victorian period, and this may have allowed a space for local heraldry to develop as it did. However, the accession of Edward VII in 1901 seems to have brought about a reinvigoration of many practises that had perhaps dissipated during Queen Victoria's long reign. <p> The extent of the decline in official heraldry, although perhaps in the extreme, can be seen in the Irish Crown Jewels Affair of 1907.<br> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsIrishJewels" height=420 width=420> </div> </td> </table> <font color="#666600">Figure 13: The Irish Crown Jewels Affair - the illustration shows King Edward VII, and the cover of a recent book on the affair illustrating the jewels</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> Irish historian, and critic of the office of the Chief Herald of Ireland, Sean Murphy has written of this scandal: <blockquote> The membership of the Order of St Patrick was composed of leading peers titled Knights Companions. The Ulster King of Arms, Arthur Vicars, the state heraldic and genealogical officer in charge of the Office of Arms, was made responsible for registering the Order's membership and caring for its insignia. It was during his tenure that the 'crown jewels', actually the regalia of the Order, were stolen from the Office. <p> The discovery of the theft of the Jewels caused great concern to government, and indeed King Edward VII was particularly angered (he allegedly exclaimed "I want my jewels!"), as he was on the point of visiting Ireland and intended to invest a knight of the Order of St Patrick. Apparently largely on the King's insistence, it was decided to reconstitute the Office of Arms and replace Vicars. Vicars, however, refused to resign, being supported by his half-brother, Pierce O'Mahony, a self-styled Gaelic Chief titled The O'Mahony, who became the most prominent figure in a campaign for a public enquiry which it was hoped would vindicate Vicars from the accusations of laxity, blackmail and even complicity surrounding the theft. <p> The aftermath of the theft of the Jewels was replete with drama and tragedy. On 30 January 1908 Vicars was informed that his appointment as Ulster King of Arms had been terminated, and Captain Nevile Rodwell Wilkinson was appointed in his place. As the disgruntled Vicars refused to hand over the keys to the Office of Arms strongroom, Wilkinson found himself obliged to stage another break-in in order to gain entry! Understandably embittered and believing that he had been made a scapegoat for the theft of the Jewels, Vicars retired to the countryside where in 1921 he was shot by a local IRA unit after it had set fire to his manor house. <p> It can be argued that the Irish Office of Arms never really recovered from the Jewels scandal, and that standards in Irish genealogical and heraldic practices were the principal casualties of the affair. The new Ulster King of Arms, Nevile Wilkinson, left the running of the Office of Arms to deputies, and while he did establish an Heraldic Museum, he never produced a substantial heraldic or genealogical publication. The decline of the Office of Arms of course accelerated following Irish independence in 1922, until it was eventually taken over by the Irish government in 1943, in a condition which the new incoming head Edward MacLysaght fairly characterised as a mess. The Office of Arms was restructured as the Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland. <p> source: <a href="http://homepage.eircom.net/~seanmurphy/irhismys/jewels.htm"><font color="#666600">Sean Murphy's website, <i>Irish Historical Mysteries: The 'Irish Crown Jewels'</i>, undated, c2003?</font></a> </blockquote> <p> The decline of heraldic authority in Ireland, the development of locally assumed heraldic practises in NSW - both suggest reasons for the Colonial Office issuing a despatch in 1905 intimating that it was desirable for self-governing territories to seek a proper grant of Arms through the College of Arms in London (Gullick: 12). Other territories within the Empire at this time also received grants of Arms, such as <br> <ul> <li>British Columbia Arms 1906, <li>Australia Arms (1st) 1908, <li>Ontario supporters 1909, <li>South Africa Arms 1910, <li>New Zealand Arms 1911, and <li>Australia Arms (2nd) 1912. </ul> <p> This increase in heraldic activity is also evident in the numbers of personal and corporate Arms assigned to Australia: <ul> <li>1836-1889: 61, <li>1890-1898: 30 </ul> - a total of 91 for the colonial period; followed by <ul> <li>16 during Edward VII's brief 10 year reign, <li>and a further 48 between 1911 and 1936. </ul> Within the first third of the 20th century there had been two-thirds the number of grants for the whole colonial period. By the end of George VI's reign in 1952, and the first half of the century, the total number stood at 90, equalling the whole colonial period, after which the numbers really exploded, with 84 grants during the first 10 years of Queen Elizabeth II's reign alone. By the end of the 20th century, the colonial-era grants accounted for only 12% of all grants of Arms to Australians. There have already been at least 21 grants since 2000, suggesting that interest remains strong. The of granting of official Arms to State and Commonwealth authorities follows a similar trajectory, although of much lower numbers, and seriously declining from the 1970s onwards (thanks to Stephen Szabo for these figures). <p> Thus the College of Arms, prompted by the Colonial Office, reasserted its authority in the dominions in the early 20th century. One effect was to stall the evolution of local heraldic authority in the dominions until 1930s/40s (South Africa and Ireland), the 1960s (South Africa, Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe), and the 1980s (Canada, New Zealand). In contrast this evolution has been very limited in Australia - the NSW Arms Act of 2004 being the first instance, and that is limited to official heraldry. <p> The importance of heraldic symbolism is best demonstrated at times of change. Vicars was killed on the eve of Irish independence, and his Office allowed to quietly decay.<br> Figure 14: HONG KONG<br> The rapidity of the replacement of official Arms in Hong Kong in 1997 illustrates this quite graphically. <p> The point of this discussion, and of drawing a few long bows, is to show that representations of official coats of arms and other heraldry are not mere decoration. They have very important symbolic roles, but the strength of the heraldic authority that should uphold their heraldic integrity has ebbed and flowed over the past 200 years. The granting of the NSW Coat of Arms in 1906 marked a period of reassertion of heraldic authority, and directly challenged the practises of local heraldic art, the widespread assumption of nationalistic Advance Australia arms, and any popular impressions of a vice-regal role in locally administering heraldic authority. Heraldic authority in Australia has remained dependent upon overseas sources in London, Edinburgh and Dublin, and more recently some Australians have at least the opportunity to seek Arms in Ottawa or Pretoria. Grants of official Arms, by contrast, fell away in the 1970s and have not recovered, suggesting an increasing resistance by State and Commonwealth governments to accede to overseas heraldic authority, but a the same time a failure to patriate that authority - despite several popular campaigns since the 1960s to bring about such a patriation. <p> The question now is to see whether these ebbs and flows are reflected in the representations of official heraldry made and used in NSW, and whether there is any differences between the crafting and manufacturing of official heraldic representations. <p> <b>Craftsmanship</b> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsMacquariePortrait" height=420 width=400> </div> </td> </table> <font color="#666600">Figure 15: Portrait of Governor Lachlan Macquarie, by Richard Read Snr, 1822, Picman P2/144</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> During the early colonial period of convictism and direct vice-regal rule, Royal Arms seem to have been painted directly on to walls and objects. As the new court houses in King Street, Sydney were nearing completion in 1828 the artist Richard Read was paid for painting "<i>an escutcheon of the Kings Arms</i>" on the wall of the courtroom. Read was an expiree, and the local press had earlier reported on his "<i>crayon designs on the walls of Government House</i>", and his 1822 portrait of Governor Macquarie. <br> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsSilk" height=300 width=420> </div> </td> </table> </i><font color="#666600">Figure 16: A possible example of Read's work: Captain Silk's 'Advance Australia' Arms, 1821, oil painted on cedar, Picman R183</font></a><br> </blockquote> </div> <p> Another heraldic artist from this period was Samuel Murrell who in the 1840s was advertising himself as a 'herald painter'. Colonel Mundey in his travelogue <i>Our Antipodes</i> published in 1852, described a person who may well be Murrell: <blockquote> At the period of colonial history when the emancipist class, patronised and drawn from social obscurity by the governor of the day, had attained the highest point of prosperity; when the eminent and opulent firms of Lagg, Scragg, Hempson & Co., and other houses and individuals, possessed branch businesses in London, Liverpool, and in the neighbouring colonies, and owned at least one half of the monied and landed property in the colony - it is a ludicrous fact that an ingenious individual, in quest of an opening for employment, hit upon the bright idea of establishing an "office of armorial research". He had no difficulty in finding namesakes for most of his Botany Bay constituents among the nobility and landed gentry of England, and in adapting to them suitable coats of arms, heraldic emblems and mottoes. I happen to know that on one occasion this colonial garter-king-at-arms having allotted to an ex-convict customer the following imposing motto: - "Ictus non victus" - "Stricken not vanquished"; - and having with some complacency submitted it for approval to a gentleman of his acquaintance, the latter, with all due deference to the accomplished herald, proposed this trifling amendment - "Ictus ter convictus" - "Scourged, and thrice convicted"! - a legend more veracious than most epitaphs! <p> One day, whilst riding with the Governor, I drew his attention to a carriage of peculiar form and colour, evidently an exact copy of one brought by his Excellency from England. His Excellency, although not easily moved, appeared far from flattered at finding that for the future he must be content to share the peculiarity of his equipage with emancipist Mr. - - . There were the graceful bends of the vice-regal phaeton, even the very shade of the aristocratic yellow closely imitated. There was a crest, coat of arms, &c. &c.; and, for aught I know to the contrary, the worthy proprietor may have adopted, in profound ignorance of its import, the bar sinister of royal descent, borne on the shield of the ducal family whose scion now rules the colony. The same armorial bearings, I understand, are blazoned on the wire window-blinds of this ambitious gentleman's residence. <p> Mundey, 1852: x </blockquote> During the later part of the colonial period, when wealth flooded in from gold and pastoralism, and self-government was granted in 1856, Royal Arms began to be carved as three dimensional, movable objects usually in cedar or sandstone. The foremost carver was probably James Cunningham, <br> 17 CUNNINGHAM<br> who signed and dated many of his works, such as Royal Arms for Hartley Courthouse (1863), the Supreme Court (1870), Darlinghurst Courthouse (1888), and Kempsey Courthouse (1897), as well as in Government House and the Banco Court, and Arms later transferred from Bulli and Glebe courthouses to the Supreme Court. There are probably other examples as well. Cunningham arrived in Sydney in 1863, and operated a business as a woodcarver and stone mason. By 1875 he had established a yard near Wynyard Square where he seems to have operated a large monumental stoneworks. Examples of Cunningham headstones can be found throughout Sydney cemeteries, including the Quarantine Station at North Head. He maintained his woodcarving and cabinet making business as well, and is perhaps best known for making the case of the Strasbourg Clock now in Powerhouse Museum. <p> Other carvers included John Ferris (Supreme Court 1886) and George Sutherland <br> 18 SUTHERLAND<br> (Hartley Courthouse, original location unknown). <p> The wealth and self-confidence of the period is reflected in the many public buildings designed by Colonial Architect James Barnet, who not only ensured that public buildings such as the Treasury Building<br> 19 Sydney GPO, <br> 20 GPO<br> 21 the Colonial/Chief Secretarys Building, Sydney Customs House<br> 22 CUSTOMS<br> and Sydney University Medical School were well-endowed with finely carved Royal coats of arms and colonial emblems but also in 1874 designed the NSW badge that now adorns the state flag. <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsTreasury" height=300 width=300> </div> </td> </table> </i><font color="#666600">Figure 23: New South Wales Badge, with Waratah Wreath and Prince of Wales' Coronet,<br> <a href="http://www.heritage.nsw.gov.au/07_subnav_01_2.cfm?itemid=5044997">NSW Treasury Building</a>, Macquarie Street Portico, Sydney (now private hotel),<br>architect Walter Liberty Vernon, built 1898-1900, carved sandstone;<br>photographer: S. Szabo, 2003</font></blockquote> </div> <p> Versions of the 'Advance Australia' Arms continued to develop during this time, perhaps most spectacularly in the stained glass of the QVB:<br> <p> <div align="center"> <blockquote> <table> <table border=0 cellpadding=3 width=610> <td> <div align="center"> <img src="ArmsQVB" height=420 width=420> </div> </td> </table> </i><font color="#666600">Figure 24: 'Advance Australia' Arms,<br> <a href="http://www.heritage.nsw.gov.au/07_subnav_01_2.cfm?itemid=2450498">Queen Victoria Building</a>, George Street, Sydney (shopping arcade),<br>architect George McRae, built 1893-1898, restored c1984, stained glass;<br>photographer: S. Szabo, 2004</font></blockquote> </div> <p> <p> It was also during this period that industrial printing became more widespread, and further expanded the range of heraldic representations. The introduction of postage stamps in NSW in 1850 is one example:<br> 25 STAMPS<br> The first stamp produced by the Government Printers Office featured the colonial Seal, and is often known to collectors as the 'Sydney Views' stamp. The design of the seal dated from 1790, and its use on the first stamp was intended to clearly designate the official status of the new postal receipts. <p> Local heraldry made its appearance on several stamps after the adoption of the Colonial (now State) Badge in 1874, most strikingly in a red 1 penny definitive that was issued between 1897 and 1910 featuring the colonial/state badge on a shield with a crown - probably designed by William Gullick.<br> STAMP ROOM<br> By the time the Badge was adopted, the Stamp Room at the Government Printer's Office was a fully operational industrial printing works. <p> <b>Transition to Industrial</b><br> As the 19th century wore on, industrial processes (such as printing) became increasingly widespread, although craftsmen continued to dominate the making of heraldic representations for the time being. One reason for the shift towards manufacturing, however, might be seen in the story of the convict carver Mr Swan on Cockatoo Island in 1861, as told by expiree William Derrincourt in his reminiscences <i>Old Convict Days</i>, published nearly 40 years later in 1899:<br> COCKATOO ISLAND<br> <blockquote> Swan had been transported for for a term of thirty years, for killing a man up country, and burning the body between two logs. He was a powerful man of most desperate character, well up in fisticuffs, and partial to the use of the knife. ...and notwithstanding his smooth talk at times, and his plausible manner, he was a black-hearted villain. (251) <p> Swan was noted as a tasteful and skilled workman in ornamental stone-cutting and scroll-work, and was directed to hew, carve and figure out an immense ornament for the dome of the engineering house - a stone representation of the Royal Arms. He had been engaged on his carving for about two years, under the supervision of Mr Kale. When the work was almost completed his assistant operative committed some offence against the rules, and was banished to the quarries. <p> Mr Kale appointed his successor, who did not suit Swan, he wishing another man, whom he pointed out. Mr Kale, however, was resolute, which aroused the passions of Swan, who forthwith beat his magnificent carving to pieces with a sledge-hammer. I was near at hand, and Kale called on me to endeavour to prevent this wanton demolition of as fine a piece of stone-cutting as had yet been seen in the colony, but I declined to interfere ... a file of guard was summoned, Swan was secured, and afterwards sent off to Darlinghurst. (279-280)</blockquote> Derrincourt's memory is confirmed in the correspondence of Superintendent GK Mann of the Cockatoo Island Penal Establishment when he wrote on 27 December 1861: "<i>...prisoner deliberately and wilfully destroyed the ornamental stonework that I have in preparation for the pediment over the entrance archway to the new work-shops.</i>" <p> Mr Swan's tantrum points to a factor favouring industrialisation: it could reduce a dependency on the idiosyncrasies of individual craftsmen, as well as the slowness of their production. <p> The printing press was one example of standardised, speedy production that could also be of a high quality, making it suitable for the production of heraldic representations such as postage stamps. <p> It also allowed the rise of what might be called quasi-heraldry, or the assuming of other people's Arms on the basis of apparently sound advice and guidance provided by the heraldic stationers, notably in Sydney the firm of John Sands & Co. <br> SANDS<br> Sands industrial printing presses provided all manner of heraldic wares- letterheads, notepaper, cards, book plates, memorials - all "<i>..in accordance with the Laws of Heraldry</i>". All you needed to do was send in your family name and county of origin in Britain or Ireland, and your Arms and their implied gentility - so definitely not of the convict class inhabited by Mr Swan - could be easily found with authenticity guaranteed. <p> Among Sands printing staff in the 1870s and 80s was William Gullick, printer's broker, who brought his son William Applegate Gullick into the firm. Gullick junior learnt his trade well, and in 1896 he was appointed NSW Government Printer, a position he held until his death in 1922. <p> GULLICK<br> Gullick was something of a renaissance man, being interested not only in all aspects of printing and bookcrafts, but was widely read, a keen stamp and coin collector, and photographic experimenter, especially working with colour photography; "<i>...Of heraldry he was a keen student</i>", stated his obituary, which also described him as being of "<i>...an artistic temperament ...a strict disciplinarian...the most delightful of companions</i>". <p> When the request came from London for the State to consider seeking its own Arms, the request was referred to Government Printer Mr Gullick. It arrived in the right Office at the right time, and Gullick took to the task with some relish.<br> GULLICK DESIGNS<br> He prepared several designs and, once he had obtained approval from the Premier, began discussions with the York Herald through the NSW Agent General in London. Several minor changes were suggested by York Herald, notably to differentiate the rising sun crest from a similar crest in private use. In March 1906 the <i>Sydney Morning Herald</i> published the first version of the NSW Arms.<br> NSW ARMS<br> There were several criticisms of the design from journalist/historians and a member of the Historical Society - all arguing that the Arms should be based upon the design of the Seal issued by George III in 1790. Gullick, however, stuck to his design, arguing for its focus on the future in preference for a return to using symbols of the convict era. As he wrote at the time, his new design, which had drawn so heavily upon the popular heraldic symbolism of the Advance Australia Arms, was <blockquote>...representative of our rising position in the rank of nations ... we are but as yesterday inscribed on the roll of nations, and may sincerely hope that most of our history has yet to be written.</blockquote> Gullicks design, or more properly the blazon he developed, won the approval of Edward VII, who in October 1906 made a personal grant <i>...For the greater honour and distinction of Our State of New South Wales.</i><br> And thus we can commemorate the centenary of this grant in October this year. <p> The grant of the new State Arms at this time reflect the reassertion of heraldic authority, and occurred at a most opportune time in regard to the making of representations of the new blazon. <p> <b>Manufacturing</b><br> With federation in 1901 NSW matured from a colony to state in a continental federal Commonwealth. It was a time great optimism and expectation. The new tariff protections enacted by the new Commonwealth authorities were fostering manufacturing industries, one of which was the Redfern metalworkers Wunderlich. The firm was already moulding, stamping and pressing zinc or copper statuary in the late 1890s, and by 1905 was advertising metal representations of coats of arms and emblems. <br> WUNDERLICH<br> All of the moulds and matrixes were made in the Company's Redfern workshops, and then made on the site. <p> Following the Great War (when the firm was often attacked for being 'German'), they produced steel, brass and zinc Royal, State and Australian coats of arms "suitable for peace celebrations" some of which were decorated in full enamel colour. During the 1930s the expansion of the Rural Bank (later the State Bank, then privatised and now no longer in existence) brought a great demand for representations of the State Arms.<br> MARTIN PLACE<br> The Company produced a range of pressed copper representations, of which I have this example here from the interior of the head office building in Martin Place, and similar representations were also used on the exterior of branches. <br> PRESSED COPPER<br> One survives on the former Parramatta branch building. The significance of the use of the State Arms by the Rural Bank was to clearly indicate to its customers that this was a safe, stable government bank. The industrial manufacturing that Wunderlich could provide allowed for the production of multiple representations of the State Arms for both interior and exterior uses at a time when the Bank was rapidly expanding its branch network and the variety of services it offered. The surviving branch buildings and their heraldry can still clearly convey an impression of security and modernity. When associated with the symbolic meanings inherent in the widely used and displayed State Arms the strength of heraldic authority seems evident - especially in contrast to the decline previously noted in Ireland. <p> During World War Two the company made service badges for the Australian forces and the RAF, and continued making coats of arms and 'heraldic plaques' into the 1950s and 60s. The company's Redfern showroom in 1957 featured a large Royal Arms watching over the art deco fantasies on show. All of these metal wares were based using moulds made by company craftsmen, and although freelance carvers continued to produce individual coats of arms during this period, Wunderlich's mass production techniques brought official arms out of public buildings and into the shops, offices and homes of people across NSW. Some examples of craftsman's work from this period that I have found include the mosaic floor of the Wesley College chapel<br> WESLEY,<br> and the terrazzo and mosaic floor in the vestibule of the Mitchell Library<br> LIBRARY<br> - both dating from the 1940s. <p> In 1969 CSR took over Wunderlich, and began disposing of many of the moulds and machines, with production finally ceasing in 1972. The Sydney firm of sign makers, Cunneens, purchased the sign section of Wunderlich, inheriting many of the original patterns for Royal and State coats of arms. These have influenced but not proscribed the company's designs, with some contemporary Royal and State coats of arms clearly reflecting late 20th century tastes, heraldic knowledge and physical materials.<br> MADDISON<br> As far as I can tell, Cunneens are today the principal makers of durable representations of State Arms suitable for use on buildings, and using industrial manufacturing processes, although there may also be other firms in this field that I am not aware of. <p> Industrial printing has also continued to make an important contribution to the production heraldic representations. One example is the production of new bank notes. <br> POUND NOTE<br> The inclusion of Coats of Arms has two main purposes: they provide a complex design element to foil counterfeiters, and they convey the official status and security of the bank notes. In the early 20th century, when the new Commonwealth bank notes were first produced this security was a critical issue: bank notes were no longer to be produced by private banks subject to financial collapse, as many people had witnessed in 1890s depression. <p> With the introduction of decimal currency in 1966 this use of official Arms continued, although some might consider that the design was beginning to stray somewhat from the blazon (although it's one of my favourite representations):<br> DOLLAR NOTE<br> The replacement of the one dollar note in 1984 with a coin saw the end of representations of official heraldry on Australian bank notes. Perhaps the need to convey the official status and security of currency through heraldic representations was no longer considered necessary? <p> As the 20th century wore on, industrialisation allowed for the greater production of representations of Arms, although at the same time heraldic authority seems to have once again began to weaken and dissipate. <p> Tourist heraldry, such as souvenir china, teaspoons, tea towels, painted tiles and so on reflect popular interest in heraldry, but their quality is highly variable. However, they can illustrate a merging of industrial (the 'blanks') and craftworks (the 'illustration'). <br> SEE EXAMPLES <br> It is of interest to note the view of such tourist heraldry taken by Lord Goddard in the Court of Chivalry in December 1954 when he commented upon the use of heraldry for decoration: <blockquote>To take one instance hundreds if not thousands of inns and licenced premises throughout the land are known as the so and so Arms and the achievements of nobleman or landowner are displayed as their sign.<p> The arms of Universities, Colleges and Dioceses displayed on tobacco jars, ash trays, teapots and other articles of domestic use are found in shops all over the country and are dear to the heart of souvenir hunters, tourists, Americans and others as well as seaside visitors. In strictness I suppose none of these people have any right to use or display articles thus emblazoned.</blockquote> Lord Goddard was sitting in judgement on a case in which Manchester City Council was seeking to have its Coat of Arms protected from being used by a commercial enterprise. It is implicit in this case that heraldic authority was once again waning, and that people and corporations with a duly assigned right to bear Arms were seeking protection of their ownership. Industrialisation was allowing for the widespread purloining of coats of arms, and the bearers of arms were finding that there was little they could do. <p> Fields of government activities (and therefore official authority) widened considerably during the first three-quarters of the century, and industrialisation allowed for the mass production of heraldic representations of that authority. The Rural Bank example has already been cited, and similar heraldic usage is also evident in the NSW Government Railways and Commonwealth Railways train badges <br> TRAINS<br> Rail badges provide a further example of the ability of industrial production methods to reflect the these activities, and is an area that could form a discrete essay on its own. <p> However, the industrial production of Arms seems to decline from the 1960s/70s onwards. This coincides with decline and closure of Wunderlich, but also there is an implicit lack of heraldic authority to enforce heraldic standards and the rationale for the use of official heraldry. There seems to be a decline of heraldic representation to mere decoration, as illustrated by tourist heraldry. <p> Without the presence of an active heraldic authority, representations of authority become subject to graphic design approaches and copyright protections, as illustrated in the development of the logo.<br> LOGOS<br> An early, and still in use, example is that of the Public Trustees Office, and the various entities that are currently known as State Rail - both of these date from the mid-1970s. <p> Representations of the State Arms since the 1970s often only bear only a passing resemblance to the blazon - <br> STATE TIES<br> STATE TIES EXAMPLE <br> TRANSIT POLICE BADGE <br> The woven or embroidered cloth tie or badge can now be industrially produced, but it has little in common with the heraldic accuracy and beauty of the example shown in the Australia impaled Broughton Arms referred to earlier. <p> KATOOMBA FIRE STATION<br> This Fire Brigade badge installed on the new Katoomba Fire Station a few months ago incorporates the State Arms within the badge. The lack of heraldic authority in Australia at present is evident in the at least ten departures from the blazon or accepted practise in this example: <ul> <li>the stars have red disks in their centres, <li>the golden fleece in the 4th quarter is facing the wrong way, <li>the red flames on the tips of the sun rays are missing, <li>the conventional depiction of nine alternating straight and wavy sun rays is replaced by 19 straight lines, <li>the wreath is missing, <li>a white bordure has been added, <li>the garbs in the 2nd and 3rd quarters are different sizes and shapes, <li>the Lion of the South is a simple silhouette, <li>the combination of a tinted and monochrome representation is confusing, resulting in white charges on a white field edged by a white cross, which also violates a basic rule of blazoning: metal (white) should not be against metal. </ul> It does seem to me that, unless this representation of the State Arms has been specifically differenced in some way to form part of the badge (which I doubt), then this is not a representation of the State Arms? If that is the case, does it contravene the requirements of the <i>State Arms, Symbols & Emblems Act</i> for places of official state business to now use and display the State Arms, the blazon of which forms a schedule of the Act? It would seem that there is no authority in NSW to confirm this. <p> Changes in fashion and style make industrial heraldic objects, in the absence of any heraldic authority, subject to the whims of fashion. The correct blazon may be expressed in contemporary art forms: but then they seem to be crafted rather then industrial - and is anyone checking these designs against the blazons?<br> NORTHERN TERRITORY<br> For example, the Arms displayed on Northern Territory Parliament in Darwin and the Commonwealth Parliament in Canberra. <p> Conservation works on the Chief Secretary's Building Royal Arms were undertaken as part of work on the building, and were guided by appropriate heraldic expertise, but these were part of a larger program of conservation works on the building, rather than conservation works to official Coats of Arms <i>per se</i>. Heraldic conservation works do not yet seem to form a discrete field of conservation work, as is perhaps shown by the condition of the representation of the Royal Arms at Queen's Landing Place, in the Royal Botanic Gardens.<br> QUEENS LANDING PLACE<br> There is some conservation work on heraldic objects where they are an object in a collection, but then the conservation is of the artefact as an artefact, <br> MACQUARIES CHAIR EXAMPLE<br> although some attempts have been made understand the heraldic significance of such objects <blockquote> (QUOTE) </blockquote> PLATE<br> I am hopeful that as the new <i>State Arms, Symbols & Emblems Act</i> becomes better known it will provide some degree of heraldic authority, and will lead to the making of representations of the State Arms that are true to their blazon, as well as the conservation of historical representations of Royal and State Arms as objects of significance in their own right. <p> <b>Some Conclusions</b> The current T shirts, alcohol labels, tourist heraldry and so on really show how heraldic illustration has become divorced from heraldic practise, elevating decorative qualities at the expense of symbolism. Quality illustration may be evident is some examples,<br> WA ARMS<br> but they are rarely in accord with heraldic practises/arts or blazoning, and their symbolism can be confusing when associated with commercial activities that are not related to official activities. <p> This separation becomes even more evident in the poor heraldic illustration evident in shirts, labels and souvenir illustrations - it seems more more dada than blazon. Evidence of a lack of heraldic authority in Australia seems to abound. <p> However, it could be said that there are still some good examples of high quality manufacturing - <br> CENTENARY ALBUM EXAMPLE<br> the Centenary of Federation 50c coins series with Commonwealth, State and Territory arms - but I do wonder whether their numismatic quality has been guided by attention to blazon and heraldic practice or to anti-forgery and other security measures? The use of an 8-pointed star as the Centenary of Federation emblem (rather then 7-pointed Federation Star) indicates graphic designers had important role. <p> I would probably argue that the power of heraldry to convey official authority in Australia has declined since the 1970s as heraldic authority has disspated and levels of heraldic literacy have declined, but nevertheless it still retains some evocative powers, <br> CANBERRA<br> as for example in the theft of a representation of the Commonwealth Arms from Old Parliament House gates in Canberra that was associated with a claim that the use of the kangaroo as a supporter had been made without the authorisation of indigenous people for whom the kangaroo had important totemic and cultural values. As far as I know, a projected High Court case to test this matter did not eventuate, but the role played by indigenous people and their understandings of heritable emblems of authority in the continuing development of all types of heraldry, including official heraldry, in Canada and South Africa, suggests that any revitalisation of heraldic authority in Australia (beyond that of the <i>State Arms, Symbols & Emblems Act</i>) is likely to involve Aboriginal people. <p> I am not a 21st century William Morris, calling for a return to pre-industrial, pre-Raphaelite craftsmanship.<br> MORRIS<br> Industrial and post-industrial methods have great potential to represent Arms in diverse ways that are both properly blazoned and aesthetically beautiful - but commercial pressures are relentless, and need to be balanced (for the manufacturer) by enforceable heraldic law and incentives for heraldic excellence - as well as heraldic education and knowledge amongst those who commission heraldic manufactures. <p> Clearly, my research has been limited to date, and if nothing else, it reveals the need for much more work in this area before more definitive conclusions can be reached. However, I have some confidence in saying that there is a correlation between the strength of heraldic authority and the quality of heraldic representations, especially manufactured representations.<br> THANK YOU<br> To return to my starting point: is there a progression (or retrogression?) in heraldic representation from carved sandstone grandeur to commercial graphic design? I don't think so. An understanding of the evolving nature of heraldic representation in crafted and manufactured forms seems to suggest that each has its pros and cons, and that both have existed to some degree in NSW for over 200 years. The relative strength or weakness of heraldic authority has as much of an influence, if not more so, on the quality of heraldic representations, especially if that is measured in terms of fidelity to a blazon. <p> Thank you. <p> <b><font color="#666600">References</b> <p> <ol> <li>Woodford, James, 'Victory banner flagged as early inspiration for our coat of arms', <i>Sydney Morning Herald</i>, 21 October 2005: 9 - he was quoting Paul Brunton, Senior Curator, State Library of NSW. <li>Gullick, William Applegate, <i>The New South Wales Coat of Arms, with Notes on Earlier Seals</i>, Government Printer, Sydney 1907 <li>Mundey, Godfrey Charles, <i>Our Antipodes, or, Residence and rambles in the Australasian colonies : with a glimpse of the gold fields</i>, Richard Bentley, London 1852 <li> </ol> </font> <p> <b><font color="#666600">Photo credits (other than by author)</b> <p> <ol> <li>Figure 1: Melocco Brothers craftsman, Picman Image Catalogue, reference: GPO 1-22762, 'Mosaic for library', <a href="http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/picman/about.cfm">State Library of NSW</a> <li>Figure 2: Wrought iron gates at Woolwich Arsenal Shell Factory, <i>The Heraldic Craftsman: Journal of the Society of Heraldic Arts</i>, No. 44, June 2003: 16 <li>Figure 6: The Bowman Flag, Picman Image Catalogue, reference: Original: XR 1, 'Bowman flag, 1806/ said to be by Mary Brown', <a href="http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/picman/about.cfm">State Library of NSW</a>. <li>Figures 7 & 16: Captain Silk's Advance Australia Arms, Picman Image Catalogue, reference: Original: R 183, 'Australian coat of arms, c. 1820s', <a href="http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/picman/about.cfm">State Library of NSW</a>. The catalogue reads: <blockquote><i>Unsigned, undated<br> Originally the property of Thomas Silk, the son of the Captain of the Prince of Orange, a ship that visited Sydney in 1821. Date of work approximated from the date of this visit<br> The style of application of paint onto the panel is reminiscent of coach painting.<br> The reverse of the panel appears to have been prepared as a cribbage board.</i></blockquote> <li>Figure 15: Lachlan Macquarie 1822, Picman Image Catalogue, reference: Original: P2/144, 'Lachlan Macquarie, Finished from Life on Feby 9th 1822', watercolour drawing, 29 x 24.3cms, <a href="http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/picman/about.cfm">State Library of NSW</a> </ol> </font>